Obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, tobacco use — there are a variety of reasons that a pregnancy can be classified as “high risk.”
But one factor that isn’t currently considered by most healthcare providers is whether the pregnancy itself is wanted to begin with, and data collected by the Perinatal Data System suggests that it’s something that healthcare providers may want to start taking into account.
Tim Dye, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and director of biomedical informatics at the CTSI, shared data from an analysis of the Perinatal Data System, which includes several hundred thousand pregnant women from the 22-county region of the Finger Lakes and Central New York. The seminar, which took place on Tuesday, Oct. 14, was part of the CTSI Seminar Series on Women’s Health.
Dye began studying the topic in the 90’s, when New York State began funding the Perinatal Data System. As part of the completion of a birth certificate, women were asked a standardized question “Thinking back to just before you were pregnant, how did you feel about becoming pregnant?” Based on responses from the approximately 300,000 live births that Dye and his team have currently sorted in the upstate New York registry:
- 65 percent of live births were intended at conception, meaning the woman wanted to become pregnant when she did, or even sooner.
- 28 percent had mistimed pregnancies, meaning they’d wanted to become pregnant, but not until later in life.
- 7 percent were unwanted pregnancies, meaning they did not want to become pregnant at the time of conception, or at any point in the future.
The 7 percent of unwanted pregnancies represented approximately 20,000 women, giving a large enough sample size for Dye’s team to make some associations. After parsing the data, Dye found that the strongest statistical relationships to unwanted pregnancies were women who live in poverty, women with lower educational levels, and women at both extremes of the age spectrum (under 17, or over 40).
Women with pre-existing medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, or other chronic illnesses, were also more likely to have an unwanted pregnancy.
“So it’s probably the women who are least likely to be able to financially deal with having an unwanted pregnancy who are the most likely to have one,” said Dye.
Additionally, women with unwanted pregnancies are also more likely to have maternal infections. They were also more likely to have a pre-term birth.
Many people assume that those with unwanted pregnancies are less likely to have or seek prenatal care, said Dye. But this isn’t actually true, as Dye’s statistics showed that 98 percent of women with unwanted pregnancies do have some amount of prenatal care.
This means that most women are encountering healthcare professionals at some point before they give birth. But despite the suggestive data about the various risks, women with unwanted pregnancies were actually no more likely to be referred for high-risk care than were other women.
“We certainly see that pregnancies unwanted at conception that result in a live birth are different from other pregnancies,” said Dye. “So it could well be a marker for pregnancy that might lead to different kinds of complications, exposures, and risks.”
For many factors, we don’t fully understand why this is the case yet, said Dye. But since it’s not a variable that is even assessed at intake all the time, unwanted pregnancies aren’t often dealt with clinically at this point.
Said Dye: “That may be something that providers should start thinking about.”